The Arkutun Dagi field of the Sakhalin 1 Project is an oil and gas field located off the east coast of Sakhalin Island in the Russian Federation. Hibernia oil field : Located in or next to body of water : North Atlantic Ocean: Located on terrain feature: Hibernia oil field: Inception: November 1997; Different from: Hibernia; 46° 45′ 01.57″ N, 48° 46′ 58.54″ W: Authority control Q5750713. In addition to this, there are many war-time structures, such as the Maunsell Forts in the Thames and Mersey Estuary, which have been decommissioned and the structures left in place. F3-FB Production Platform SF. Bravo and Delta are of a similar design. Storage tanks for 1.3 million barrels of crude oil re located inside the gravity structure. This cuts to a wider view of John and his colleague leaning alongside him, their attention on the onscreen imagery. The continuing computer generated imagery shows the yellow lines dissipating, but the structure continues to rise. Typically, they consist of one or more concrete legs that support offshore oil and gas platforms above a base of oil storage cells. In the first test, only diamond wire was used. A floating storage system was largely ruled out by the relatively shallow water depth of 60m and the problems this would present with the risers and anchoring systems. Rear view close-up of a worker wearing safety gear using a cutting torch on a part of the structure. Computer generated imagery of the gravity base structure continues as just described. Panning bird’s eye view of the tops of three concrete legs, water visible below and land also visible at the top of frame. The platform stands 224 metres high, which is half the height of New York's Empire State Building (449 metres) and 33 metres taller than the Calgary Tower (191 metres). Bird’s eye view of a red container being similarly hoisted against the background of ocean waters. Attempting to lift the structures from the seabed could also collapse them. For multiple selection of entities keep "SHIFT" key pressed. Gravity Base Structure (GBS) The Topsides is supported by a massive concete pedestal called the Gravity Base Structure (GBS) which was constructed in Bull Arm, Newfoundland and Labrador. Computer generated imagery depicting a panning wide view of one of the Brent platforms seen against the background of grey skies above and grey swirling waters below. Footage of workers dressed in hardhats and safety gear on the topside of one of the Brent platforms, preparing to descend. Wide footage of James and other colleagues seated either side of a long table in a conference room, their attention on the screen against the wall beyond on which an infographic is projected. We therefore recommend that the GBS legs remain in place. High angle view of the top of one of the concrete legs, filled with ballast. Despite being punctured and damaged, the oil storage cells themselves may remain largely upright for at least 1,000 years. They are taller than Nelson’s Column. The continuing computer generated imagery now zooms to a close-up of the storage cells, now shaded in yellow and darkish blue, depicting the sediment in the bottom of the storage cells and the water filling the rest of the cells respectively. View project videos and photos; ABOUT HEBRON Hebron is an offshore oil field estimated to contain more than 700 million barrels of recoverable resources. Close-up of James Blackburn, as he speaks, seen against the slightly out of focus background of an office environment. Our recommendation based on 10 years of study, and independent review and analysis by our Independent Review Group, is to leave the concrete gravity base structures with the legs up, in place. The Sleipner A platform produces oil and gas in the North Sea and is supported on the seabed at a water depth of 82 m. It is a Condeep type platform with a concrete gravity base structure consisting of 24 cells and with a total base area of 16 000 m2. Low angle view of the helicopter landing on the topside against the background of a cloudy blue sky. The Troll A gas platform is not only the deepest gravity-based structure in the world, but the tallest structure ever moved – measuring 472m in height. In the Draft Brent Decommissioning Programme, and after extensive analysis and consultation, Shell proposes to leave some of the existing infrastructure in place – this consists of the concrete gravity based structures and the storage cells on Brent Bravo, Charlie and Delta, in addition to the footings of the Steel Jacket on Brent Alpha. 石油プラットフォーム (せきゆプラットフォーム、oil platform)または 石油 リグ (せきゆリグ、oil rig)は、 海底 から 石油 や 天然ガス を掘削・生産するために必要な労働者や機械類を収容する、海上に設置される規模の大きい海洋 構造物 … Hebron is an offshore oil field estimated to contain more than 700 million barrels of recoverable resources. The Hibernia Gravity Base Structure is an offshore oil platform on the Hibernia oilfield southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. Duncan picks up a document off the desk while Alistair looks at the screen in front of him. ­Spar platform: Finally, if you absolutely need to drill a hole at a depth of 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), then the spar platform is the oil rig for you. Slightly out of focus front view footage of Katy and James looking over documents on the table in front of them, cutting to a high angle view of the documents on the table under Katy’s hands, James’ face again partially visible in profile at frame-right. The storage cells and legs are highlighted in orange and yellow respectively as the speaker mentions them. High angle panning footage, showing the base of the topside structure and the tops of the legs below, rough waters swirling around them. The Brent Field’s equal partners are Shell UK Ltd and Esso Exploration and Production UK Ltd. According to our analysis, this slow process of degradation and corrosion would have no measurable impact on the environment. One of the legs is seen to have a navigation aid planted on it, a red blinking light emitting from it. In the foreground, three vessels are anchored in the ocean around the platform. After cutting, the legs would need to be transported to shore for recycling. A FishSafe map fills the screen displaying symbols and lines that chart the offshore surface and subsea oil and gas structures. ABSTRACT This paper describes the main features of the concrete gravity base platform designed for the Brage field in the Northern North Sea. Independent studies suggest that successfully refloating the GBS would prove extremely difficult. A gravity base structure for an offshore platform includes a caisson having a bottom slab, a top slab, and inner and outer concentric walls which extend between the bottom and top … Hibernia’s novel 450,000t gravity-base structure design consists of a 105.5m concrete caisson, constructed using high-strength concrete reinforced with steel rods and pre-stressed tendons. To showcase the incredible nature of the largest manmade structures, here’s a list of the six biggest oil platforms in the world. The continuing computer generated imagery zooms slowly out again, showing the base rising slowly, then thick yellow vertical lines below each of the storage cells extend upwards to show the lifting of the base structure. Statfjord was discovered by Mobil in 1974, and then Statoil, now Equinor, took over the operatorship on 1 January 1987. Produced oil will be stored in the fields gravity base prior to export via shuttle tankers. Down Time Analysis Offshore wind logistics . Wide high angle view of a platform topside seen against the background of sea and sky, a helicopter seen approaching in the distance. How to Decommission Brent: Gravity Base Structures, Title:  How_to_Decommission_CUT_DOWN_1_Gravity_Based_Str_FINAL_MASTER-_211216_. Computer generated imagery depicts the tops of the legs of the gravity base structure seen against the background of swirling grey waters, panning around to a closer view of the tops of the three legs. Many oil platforms will also contain facilities to accommodate their workforce. VOSCF, a joint venture between Sovcomflot and Van Oord, successfully installed a Gravity Based Structure (GBS) for the offshore platform Berkut in the Arkutun Dagi… The cost of this partial removal would be very high, which is something Shell is required to consider. High angle footage of James and colleagues seated either side of the long conference table, this time the windows and white walls behind James forming the background. The production platform Hibernia is the world's largest oil platform (by weight) and consists of a 37,000 t (41,000 short tons) integrated topsides facility mounted on a 600,000 t (660,000 short … The story of Hunterston A power station, Scotland's first civil power plant and worlds largest when built . Since then, legislation and technology have changed, and offshore facilities installed in the north-east Atlantic after 9 February 1999 must now be designed to be completely removed. In accordance with these requirements, the topsides of all three platforms will be removed, transported to shore, dismantled and recycled. Although the tested cutting method was successful, and preliminary lifting concepts and means of transport to shore were identified, we believe that the forecasted low-level, very long term potential risks to other users of the sea are outweighed by the very tangible risks to which project personnel would be exposed by operations involved with the cut, lift, transportation and final onshore recycling of the legs if removal was selected. Gravity base structures (GBS) are among the biggest and most impressive feats of engineering in the oil and gas industry. Inherently strong and robust, they could support the unusually heavy processing facilities for production from North Sea wells, and withstand the extreme operating conditions of the stormy northern seas. The field was first discovered in 1980, and is located offshore Newfoundland and … Low angle view of part of a platform topside and the tower crane alongside, seen against a pale blue sky. Wide footage of Katy Lin and James Blackburn seated at a table and engaged in discussion, a laptop and documents on the table in front of them. Group III base oils are again created by using a hydrogen gas process to clean up the crude oil, but this time the process is more severe and is operated at higher temperatures and pressures than used for Group II base oils. There would be significant safety risks in cutting and removal – risks that have been assessed at a rate which is 40 times higher than the industry accepted safety level for offshore operations – and with very little environmental benefit. More information about the OSPAR Convention, and the institution that was created to implement the OSPAR Convention (the OSPAR Commission) can be found here: This approach is not without precedent. The GBS, which sits on the ocean floor, is 111 meters high and has storage capacity for 1.3 million barrels of crude oil … Chief Executive, Scottish Fishermen’s Federation, Bertie Armstrong / Chief Executive, Scottish Fishermen’s Federation. Construction of the GBS - starting with the cells, Learn more about the Brent Field recommendations, Our proposal for the contents of the cells, Shell Lubricant Solutions for independent workshops, Shell Rimula truck and heavy-duty Engine Oils, Find out about Shell food delivery with Deliveroo, More and cleaner energy solutions for your business, Our home energy offer for households in Great Britain, Changes to Upstream Operational Information Reporting, View Shell Lubricant Solutions for independent workshops, For more information visit the Business Support website, Shell’s ambition to be a net-zero emissions energy business. Erected in 217-m waters, the horizontal force and the overturnina moment Each upper section has a diameter of almost 20 metres and weighs more than 5,000 tonnes. The story of the Gravity Steel Base of the Maureen Alpha Oilrig that was built here and subsequently went to produce oil in the North sea before being decommissioned in 2001. Low angle close-up of Katy panning to a close-up of James’ face, both of them focused on the laptop screen in front of them. The UK tax payer will be funding part of the cost of decommissioning, so it’s really important that the operators are looking to carry out the work in the most cost effective manner. The world's first iceberg-resistant gravity-based structure, the Hibernia platform includes a 41,000-ton topside facility mounted on a 660,000-ton gravity base structure, which … Extreme wide view of the tall legs of the gravity base structure under construction, seen against a pale blue-grey sky. Brent’s profits were taxed in excess of 70%. There are 12 GBS in the UK sector of the North Sea – nine of these are currently in operation and three have already been decommissioned. And while the final costs of decommissioning are not yet known, Brent will remain an overwhelmingly positive contributor to the UK treasury. They’ve served their purpose effectively, but now their robust design is a challenge to decommission. Mar 28, 2014 - MCR-A is a collector riser platform which consists of GBS (Gravity Based Structure) and Topsides. The GBS (Fig. High angle view of wet cement pouring into a mould. Platform with a total heiõht of 380 m, a deadweight of 750000 t, and a crude oil storage capacity of 2 million barrels (320000 m D) (Fig. The field is approximately 25 km east of the Chayvo Onshore Drill Site and 18 km northeast of the Orlan platform. The option to leave the gravity base structure in place, really mirrors what’s already happened in the Norwegian sector where the structures have been left in place with navigation aids on there, to aid shipping and fishing. On an offshore oil platform, topsides is the upper part of the structure which include the processing facilities and often accomodation space. OSPAR Decision 98/3 therefore provides for the possibility of a derogation (exemption) from the general rule on removal, reuse, recycling and final disposal on land in appropriate cases using a process known as ‘Comparative Assessment’. An outline of the gravity base structure is seen anchored to the bottom of the seabed. / 46.7504361; -48.7829278 Coordinates: 46°45′1.57″N … The UK is a signatory to the OSPAR Convention. The concept can serve almost any offshore … To this day, Brent is still one of the largest oil and gas fields ever developed in the world and the structures required to unlock its energy reflect that. When these GBS’s were positioned out offshore in the 1970’s, they would’ve been towed out, filled with ballast to ensure they were grounded on the seabed. 石油プラットフォーム(せきゆプラットフォーム、oil platform)または石油リグ(せきゆリグ、oil rig)は、海底から石油や天然ガスを掘削・生産するために必要な労働者や機械類を収容する、海上に設置される規模の大きい海洋構造物である。水深など環境に応じて、プラットフォームを海底につないで人工島にするか、あるいは浮かせた状態にする。, 一般的に、石油プラットフォームは大陸棚に設置されるが、技術の進歩に伴ってより深海での掘削・石油生産が可能になっている。原油価格の動向によって、掘削コストの合理性は変動する。指向性の掘削技術(Directional drilling)により、1つのプラットフォームから異なる深度の複数の場所(約8km以内)に向けて、30ほどの坑井の掘削を行うことが可能である。 Shell believes the minimal risk to other users of the sea from leaving the legs in place is manageable and could be minimised by the appropriate navigation and warning measures. However, binding decisions of the parties to the Convention allow for infrastructure to be left in place in certain circumstances, but only where the competent authority of the State is satisfied that an assessment shows there are significant reasons why this approach is preferable. Gravity Base Structure, or GBS as we call it, is made up of a steel skirt, which anchors the structure to the bottom of the seabed. These studies are comprehensive in scope and include: These studies were conducted by independent contractors, including the company that originally designed the Bravo and Delta structures, consultancies and academia, as well as by our own experts, who draw on Shell’s long experience in offshore oil and gas installations worldwide. The base would need to be excavated and hydraulics used to prize it from the sea-floor…. The rest of the structures would be left in situ on the seabed. More footage of the workers dressed in hardhats and safety gear descending from the topside and down one of the concrete legs using a series of ropes and pulleys. As referred to in Option 1, studies have been conducted focussing on the feasibility of partially removing the legs, the parts of the GBS which extend above the cells and support the platform topside. Close-up of Duncan as he speaks, seen against the slightly out of focus background of an office environment. Aerial view of one of the platform topsides and the dark blue seas below, pulling back to a wider view of the same. High angle view of four concrete legs, rough waters swirling around them. At the time of their construction, decommissioning was not at the forefront of people’s minds and was not a prominent design consideration. How and when the legs will eventually collapse is difficult to predict, but our studies suggest it is likely that the visible part of the legs would remain in place for 150 to 250 years. More footage of Katy and James in profile, both focused on a document in front of them on the table. Close-up of James Blackburn, as he speaks, seen against the slightly out of focus background of an office environment. Further, these substructures provide the advantageous option of using the gravity base for oil storage. There are two oil rig monuments in RUST, the large oil rig monument and the small oil rig monument. All of these structures were partially built in a drydock and then completed afloat in sheltered waters. On an offshore oil platform, topsides is the upper part of the structure which include the processing facilities and often accomodation space. Hunterston Ore Terminal The story of the Gravity Steel Base of the Maureen Alpha Oilrig that was built here and subsequently went to produce oil in the North sea before being decommissioned … Aerial view of one of the Brent platforms seen against the background of the ocean. These test parameters allowed the team to further develop knowledge and techniques. This design concept encompasses several new design features. Rear view close-up of a worker dressed in hardhat and safety gear facing a block of concrete. Since 2007 Shell has examined the options for decommissioning the GBS exhaustively, carrying out more than 70 studies and trials to assess each option in detail. The legs (which each weigh around 6,000 tonnes) would need to be lifted and secured to preserve their integrity during transportation to shore by heavy lift vessel for dismantling and recycling. For example, the base of a concrete gravity platform built for Mobil Oil in the North Sea consists of 19 hollow concrete cylinders of 2 ft wall thickness, 66 ft inner diameter, and 164 ft height. As you may appreciate, making a cut without trapping that wire with 6,000 tons of dead weight bearing down on that cut surface, in a marine environment where you're dealing with the effects of waves, wind, a dynamic situation, is certainly extremely challenging. Overdick is one of the leading specialists in modern offshore engineering and design, maintenance and inspection service. Each structure has either three or four concrete legs almost 20 metres in diameter and up to 165m tall. by their own massive weight. Legs up, is the choice of the fisherman. Bitcoin markets got absolutely crushed on Monday, dropping almost 20% at one point during the day. PREV. Disclosure statement Hebron operators have supported … While they’ve achieved the cut in a test on land, there’s concern it may not work in practice. Once the visible part has degraded, the subsea section of the legs is expected to last for another 300-500 years. The light blue shading in the upper frame depicts the sky, and is separated from the dark blue shading of the underwater environment in the lower frame by a white line. The Sleipner A platform produces oil and gas in the North Sea and is supported on the seabed at a water depth of 82 m. It is a Condeep type platform with a concrete gravity base structure consisting of 24 cells and with a total base area of 16 000 m 2. The concrete gravity oil storage base concept was selected due to the insufficient capacity of the Danish oil line to Fredericia. The unique South Arne platform sits on a concrete tank which is used to store oil. We have therefore focused our attention on two decommissioning options and examined each one in detail. Once the public consultation period has ended, and the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) is satisfied that there are sufficient grounds to recommend that this infrastructure be left in place, BEIS will initiate consultations with other signatories to the OSPAR Convention to seek their approval to leave this infrastructure in place. Four cells are elongated to shafts supporting the platform deck. Overdick is one of the leading specialists in modern offshore engineering and design, maintenance and inspection service. Learn More . The trials examined how diamond wire cutting could be used to make the cuts. 8 shows an illustration of a concrete gravity-based structure (GBS). The platform consists of two parts the jacket and the deck. Shell has investigated completely removing the structures from the sea. There are five main types of fixed platform, ranging from the conventional fixed platform used at depths of up to 150m, to the tension leg platform that can be used at depths of 2000m. In addition to resisting icebergs and other environmental loads, the … Close-up of Roger Esson as he speaks, seen against an out of focus background of an office environment. The oil rig itself appears to have been modeled after a real-life offshore “Jack-Up” oil … Of the four production platforms at Brent, three are gravity base structures: Bravo, Charlie and Delta. Gravity base structures are among the biggest and most impressive feats of engineering in the oil and gas industry. 2) is designed to support the topsides structure and will rest on the ocean floor, held in place by gravity. Rear view close-up of John and the base structure imagery on the screen he is pointing to. … An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, and process petroleum and natural gas that lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. また多くのプラットフォームでは、アンビリカルケーブルに接続された遠隔坑井があり、そこからさらに周辺の多数の坑井に分岐していることもある。, シンガポールの政府系複合企業ケッペル・コーポレーションが世界最大手である。次いでセムコープなども同国の南西側のジュロン地域に集中する「シップヤード」と呼ばれる湾岸区域での基地を持つ。高度な油田探査ソフト、溶接・切断技術、安全確保に長けており、同国における石油・ガス産業は製造業の中枢をに担ってきた。ケッペルは東南アジア各国、ブラジル、メキシコ、中国、北欧各国など、世界中の産油国にプラットフォームを輸出している[1]。, 第二次世界大戦においてイギリスを防衛するために建設されたテムズ海上要塞(マンセル要塞(英語版)、Maunsell Forts)が、現代の海上石油プラットフォームの直接の先祖であると考えられる。この要塞は、あらかじめ構造を造っておき、浮かせてテムズ入り江の設置位置まで移動させた後、その浅い底に着底させることで極めて短期間に建設された[2][3]。, 1938年、スペリオル石油会社(Superior Oil Company)がルイジアナ州沖のメキシコ湾岸油田に最初の海上石油プラットフォームを建設した。, 海洋浮上式のプラットフォームの製造は、造船会社または系列の会社が担う例が多くみられるが、原油価格の変動によるコスト増や安い労働力を背景とする新興企業の安値攻勢により企業の顔ぶれが変わる。2010年代には、シンガポールのセムコープマリンなどが受注を伸ばす一方、2017年には日本のIHI[4]が、2018年には韓国の現代重工業が赤字を理由に石油プラットフォームを含む海洋構造物の事業から撤退、大規模な見直しを行う例が見られた[5]。, 石油プラットフォームは、人類が建造した移動可能な構造物としては世界でもっとも大きい部類に属する。プラットフォームはいくつかの異なる種類に分類される[6]。, 固定式プラットフォームは、コンクリートや鋼鉄でできた脚(レグ)を持ち、その脚を直接海底に固定して建設され、脚の上に掘削設備や石油の生産設備、作業員のための設備などを設置するデッキを載せている。この種類のプラットフォームは、固定されていて動かない性質を利用して、長期間の使用を想定して設計されている。素材としては、鋼鉄やコンクリートのケーソンなどが用いられる。鋼鉄のケーソンは、中空の鋼鉄の管のようなものを使い、海底にねじ込まれる。コンクリートのケーソンは、コンディープ(Condeep)と呼ばれる構想によって使われるようになり、内部が石油を貯蔵できるタンクになっていることが多い。また、タンクはケーソンを浮かせるためによく用いられ、海岸付近で建設して設置位置まで輸送して、海底に沈めて設置するために用いられる。固定式プラットフォームは、約1,700フィート(約520m)ほどまでの深さならば経済的であると言われる。, コンプライアント・タワーは、細くて柔軟な塔状の構造物を積み重ねた基礎の上に、掘削生産設備を収容したデッキを載せているものである。コンプライアント・タワーは横方向の大きなたわみや力に耐えられるように設計され、深さが1,500フィートから3,000フィート(450mから900m)くらいまでの範囲で使用される。, 半潜水式プラットフォーム(Semi-submersible platform、セミサブ型、半潜水型)は、全体としては海に浮いている構造である。脚部は海の中にあり、構造物を浮かせられるだけの浮力を持ちながら、構造物の上部を上に向けて立っていられるだけの重さを持っている。半潜水式プラットフォームは場所を移動させることが可能で、浮力タンクに水を入れることで上下させることも可能である。通常は掘削作業中は錨を入れて固定するが、自動船位保持装置によっても場所を設定することができる。半潜水式プラットフォームは600フィートから6,000フィート(180mから1,800m)ほどまでの深さで使用可能であり、水深の深い海底油田の掘削が可能となる。船体の揺れも少なく安定していることから、北海などの海象の厳しい海域での稼働が可能である。, 甲板昇降式はジャッキアップ式とも呼ばれ、船のように移動して、備え付けられた脚を海底に降ろして接地させ、潮流などの自然環境に合わせて甲板をジャッキアップして設置する。浅い海でのみ用いられる。, ドリルシップ式(船式)は、掘削装置を備えた船である。新しい油田やガス田を探索する時によく用いられるが、科学的な探索目的でも用いられる。しばしばタンカーを改造して建造され、自動船位保持装置を利用して掘削地点に留まる。大水深での稼働(1,500m以深)と高移動性が特長。, 浮体式生産貯蔵積出設備(FPSO: Floating Production Storage and Offloading)は、石油の処理設備を備えた大きな船であり、長期間にわたって一地点に固定されて使用される。浮体式生産システムには、浮体式生産貯蔵積出設備(FPSO)、浮体式貯蔵積出設備(FSO: Floating Storage and Offloading)、浮体式貯蔵設備(FSU: Floating Storage Unit)などの種類がある。これらは掘削そのものは行わず、他の方式で掘削した坑井からの生産や貯蔵、積み出しのみを行う。, 緊張係留式プラットフォーム(TLP: Tension-leg platform)は水に浮く構造物をケーブルで海底に、ほとんどの縦方向の動きが起きないような方法で固定したものである。構造物には強い浮力が掛かるように設計されており、ケーブルで海底へ強く引っ張ることでほとんど移動しない構造物を実現している。TLPは6,000フィート(2,000m)ほどの深さまで使用される。従来からのTLPは、セミサブのような4つのコラムを備えた構造をしている。Seastarや、MOSES mini TLPと言われるものはより低コストで、600フィートから3,500フィート(200mから1,100m)ほどの範囲で使用される。mini TLPは深海探査における初期生産プラットフォームなどとしても用いられる。, スパー(SPAR)は、TLPのように海底に繋留されているが、TLPが垂直方向に張力を持つケーブルで固定されているのに対して、スパーは従来型のケーブルで固定されている。スパーは3種類の形式で設計されている。1つは従来型(conventional)で、1つの垂直な円筒状の構造物を持っている、もう1つはトラス・スパー(truss spar)で、上部の浮力構造体(ハード・タンク hard tankと呼ばれる)と下部のバラストを入れた構造体(ソフト・タンク soft tankと呼ばれる)を結ぶトラス構造を持っている。3つ目はセル・スパー(cell spar)で、複数の垂直な円筒状の構造物を持っている。小型や中型のプラットフォームを造る上では、TLPよりもスパーの方が経済的であり、また下部に錘を持ち垂直の向きを保つために繋留索に頼っていないために、本質的に安定している。繋留索に備えられたチェーン・ジャッキを利用することで、水平方向に移動することもできる。最初に生産を開始したスパーは、カー・マックギー(Kerr-McGee)のネプチューン(Neptune)で、メキシコ湾の1,930フィート(588m)の深さの地点に設置された浮体生産設備である。ただし、かつてはスパーは浮体式貯蔵積出設備として用いられていた。ドミニオン石油(Dominion Oil)のデビルズ・タワー(Devil's Tower)というスパーは5,610フィート(1,710m)の深さの地点に設置されていて、世界最深のスパーである。最初のトラス・スパーは、カー・マックギーのブームバン(Boomvang)とナンセン(Nansen)である。唯一のセル・スパーは、カー・マックギーのレッド・ホーク(Red Hawk)である。, 無人設備(Normally unmanned installation)(しばしば毒キノコ toadstoolsと呼ばれる)は、デッキとヘリパッド、緊急のシェルターで構成された小さなプラットフォームである。通常の運営では遠隔制御で動くように設計されており、定期保守作業やその他の作業の必要な時にだけ作業員が訪問する。, メキシコ湾に設置されている石油プラットフォームであるペトロニアス(Petronius)は、海底から測ると高さが2,000フィートある。評価基準にもよるがこれは、2010年にブルジュ・ハリファが完成するまで、世界でもっとも高い人工構造物であった。, 大西洋のニューファンドランド島沖、ジャンヌ・ダルク海盆(Jeanne D'Arc basin)に所在するハイバーニア油田には、世界最大の石油・ガスプラットフォームが設置されている。海底に設置されている重力着底型構造物(GBS: Gravity Base Structure)は、高さ364フィートで、高さ278.8フィートのケーソンの中に130万バレルの原油を貯蔵することができる。このプラットフォームはギザギザの淵を持っていて氷山の衝撃に耐えられるようになっており、小さなコンクリート製の島のように設計されている。重力着底型構造物は、貯蔵タンク以外の部分はバラストで占められており、全重量は120万トンに達する。このプラットフォームの高さは737フィートで、これはニューヨークのエンパイア・ステート・ビルディング(1,473フィート)の約半分で、カルガリータワー(626.6フィート)より108フィート高いものとなっている。, 典型的な石油プラットフォームはエネルギーと水の供給については自給自足で、発電設備を備え海水の脱塩処理により水を作り出している。石油やガスを生産するために必要な設備も全て備えられており、生産した原油やガスはパイプラインで地上へ送られるか、浮体式貯蔵設備や積出設備に送られるようになっている。石油やガスの生産・処理に用いられる装置は、坑口装置(wellhead)、分岐管(manifold)、不純物分離装置(セパレータ、production separator)、ガス乾燥装置、ガス圧縮装置、注水ポンプ、石油・ガス計量装置、主油ポンプ(main oil line pump)などである。全ての生産設備は環境への影響を最小限にするように設計されている。, 大型のプラットフォームは、イギリスのlolairのような小さな緊急支援船(ESV: Emergency Support Vessels)に支援されており、例えば捜索救難活動が必要になった場合など、何か問題が起きた場合に呼び出される。通常の運営が行われている時は、プラットフォーム補給船(PSV: Platform Supply Vessels)が常にプラットフォームへ補給を行い、また牽引船(AHTS: Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessels)も補給を行うと共に、プラットフォームを所定の位置へ牽引し、救難・消防船として待機している。, プラットフォームにより、乗組員の人数や構成は大きく異なっている。プラットフォームは本質的にかなりのコストが掛かるものであるので、作業を24時間継続して行うことで生産性を最大化することが重要とされる。また掘削地の場所や環境に合わせて、数ヶ月の期間の駐在が必要となる。実際に探査油田を掘り当てた場合は、担当者らにボーナスを与えるなどインセンティブを設ける場合が多い。, 24時間の操業体制を維持するため、少なくとも日勤と夜勤の、2チームの完全な乗組員の組み合わせが常時乗り組んでいる必要がある。乗組員は定期的に交代しており、典型的には2週間ほどの交代間隔である。船内には運動・娯楽設備なども整っており、補給船によって定期的に物資が供給される。, ここに示した全ての職種が全てのプラットフォームにあるわけでは必ずしもなく、小さなプラットフォームでは1人が複数の分野を受け持っていることもある。また職種の名前は場所によって異なっている。, 厳しい環境の中で、しばしば非常に高圧で振る舞いの予想しづらい物質を掘り出すというその運営の本質上、リスクを含んでおりしばしば事故に見舞われる。1988年7月、北海のパイパー油田(Piper field)にあるオクシデンタル・ペトロリウムのパイパー・アルファがガス漏れ事故を起こして爆発し、167名が死亡した。この事故により、石油採掘に使うリグから居住区画を離して別なリグに設置するという教訓が得られた。しかし、2002年にはニューオーリンズ沖の石油プラットフォームが爆発事故を起こしたように、現在もリスクの根本的な解決には至っていない。2010年4月にはルイジアナ州沖の半潜水式プラットフォーム・ディープウォーター・ホライズンが爆発し、メキシコ湾に大量の石油が流出した(2010年メキシコ湾原油流出事故)。, プラットフォームはそれ自体が危険な環境下に設置されている。1980年3月、北海のアレキサンダー・キールラントプラットフォーム(Alexander Kielland)が嵐により転覆し、123名が死亡した。, 石油業界に絡む反対運動や陰謀、あるいは石油や天然ガスの経済に占める重要度から、アメリカのプラットフォームはテロリストの攻撃目標になりうると考えられている。海上のテロ対策に関係する当局(アメリカ沿岸警備隊やNavy SEALs)は、しばしばプラットフォーム攻撃への対処訓練を行っている。, イギリスの海域において、全てのプラットフォームを撤去するのに掛かる費用は1995年時点で3450億ドルに上ると推定されており、パイプラインの撤去まで含むと6210億ドルに達するとされている。, 浮力タンクに溜まった重金属が水の中に浸透するという問題もあり、その廃棄に際してはリスクがある。また完全に解体されずに残ったプラットフォームの位置を船舶が通過する時の問題もあり、漁船が網を引っ掛けるなどの問題がある。ブレント・スパー(Brent Spar)の高さ449フィートの貯蔵ブイを1996年に撤去する提案が出された時には、グリーンピースがこれを占拠してイギリスで環境上の問題となった。この事件によりヨーロッパで石油プラットフォームの廃棄に関する政策が見直されることになった。, アメリカでは、海洋生物学者のミルトン・ラブ(Milton Love)が、カリフォルニア沖の石油プラットフォームに関して、多大な費用を掛けて撤去するのではなく、人工魚礁として存置することを提案している。11年間の研究で、その地域の減少しつつある魚種にとってプラットフォームが隠れ場所となっていることを発見したためである。ラブは政府機関の資金提供を受けているが、一部ではカリフォルニア人工漁礁拡張プログラム(California Artificial Reef Enhancement Program)の支援も受けている。アメリカ海洋大気庁では、この提案は検討に値するとしているが、石油プラットフォームの影響を詳細に研究するために更なる資金が必要であるとしている。, 深さの記録は公開されている[6]。もっとも構造物が高いのは浮上式のマグノリア(Magnolia)であり、1,500m(5,000フィート)ある。, http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXKZO85359840W5A400C1FFE000/, 11.2 Azerbaijan's Oil History Brief Oil Chronology since 1920 ­ Part 2 by Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev, Poster illustrating different oil platform types and records, An independent review of Offshore Platforms in the North Sea, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=石油プラットフォーム&oldid=79591765, OOE(Offshore Operations Engineer) — プラットフォームにおける技術上の責任者, PSTL、またはOperations Coordinator for Managing Changes, Dynamic Positioning Operator — 航法、船の操作、プラットフォームの管理、事故時の消防設備の操作, 2nd Mate、3rd Mate — 旗国の定める人員要求を満たす、救難船の操作、貨物の取り扱い、消防班のリーダー, ヘリコプターパイロット — ヘリコプターにより運営されるプラットフォームに存在する、乗務員交代の際に乗務員を他のプラットフォームへ、あるいは陸上へ輸送するフライトを飛ばす, ワイヤ・管操作員(wireline or coiled tubing operator). 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